^ Robison AJ, Nestler EJ (October 2011). "Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of addiction". Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 12 (11): 623–37. doi:10.1038/nrn3111. PMC 3272277. PMID 21989194. ΔFosB has been linked directly to several addiction-related behaviors ... Importantly, genetic or viral overexpression of ΔJunD, a dominant negative mutant of JunD which antagonizes ΔFosB- and other AP-1-mediated transcriptional activity, in the NAc or OFC blocks these key effects of drug exposure14,22–24. This indicates that ΔFosB is both necessary and sufficient for many of the changes wrought in the brain by chronic drug exposure. ΔFosB is also induced in D1-type NAc MSNs by chronic consumption of several natural rewards, including sucrose, high fat food, sex, wheel running, where it promotes that consumption14,26–30. This implicates ΔFosB in the regulation of natural rewards under normal conditions and perhaps during pathological addictive-like states.
Ongoing support and aftercare are essential to this type of sustained, long-term recovery. Many drug abuse rehab centers feature robust aftercare programs, including ongoing individual therapy sessions on a periodic basis, group therapy meetings, and alumni events. Oftentimes, alumni are also encouraged to get involved in their own recovery community by participating in 12-step meetings or residing in a sober living home. If recovering addicts have people they can turn to for support when they are tempted to relapse, they are more likely to stand strong and resist the urge to use again. Drug and Alcohol Treatment Centers ► What You Don't Know

Alcohol is also linked to self-harm, psychosis, and suicide and because it can impair judgement and lead to reckless, compulsive behaviour, many people who take their own lives do so while under the influence of alcohol. In fact, NHS Scotland has said that over half of all hospital admissions related to deliberate self-harm have a direct link to alcohol either immediately before or during the act.
Drug addiction recovery is a long-term process, and those who attempt to overcome their drug problems must be prepared for a challenging struggle. In the end, persistence and determination will make all the difference, and if people recovering from substance use disorders are strong enough to stay the course, a happy, healthy, drug-free future will be within their grasp.
Attend a support group, most of which are completely free. A supportive community of like-minded, recovery-focused peers can play an important role in your recovery. Alcoholics Anonymous is a free 12-step support group. Although members are not required to be religious, many of the steps involve the belief in divine being. Visit the official site of AA: Alcoholics Anonymous

The euphoric high, exaggerated self-confidence, and energizing sensations of cocaine have made this drug one of the most popular substances of abuse in the US. Because cocaine acts on the brain’s natural reward circuitry, the drug is highly addictive, and withdrawal can cause an abrupt emotional “crash” into depression. The 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health listed cocaine as one of the country’s top three drugs of dependence, with 1.1 million American adults reporting addiction to cocaine or crack. Only marijuana and prescription pain medications were more widely abused.
Since 2014, Addiction Center has been an informational web guide for those who are struggling with substance use disorders and co-occurring behavioral and mental health disorders. All content included on Addiction Center is created by our team of researchers and journalists. of our articles are fact-based and sourced from relevant publications, government agencies and medical journals.
Addiction can be terrifying. If you or someone that you care about has been struggling with a substance use disorder, then you are well aware of the devastating impact that this insidious disease can have on virtually all aspects of life. You know all about the sleepless nights, the despair-filled days, and the pervasive fear that, just when you think it cannot get any worse, it will.
Personalized care. The ability for a patient to take part in the development of his or her treatment program with access to a wide range of therapy types gives them a much better chance of creating an experience in rehab that will help them to rapidly progress in recovery and become more solid in their ability to handle the stresses of life that threaten sustained abstinence.

Our alcohol treatment center is located in beautiful Malibu, California overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Our accommodations, treatment program, and renowned philosophy are simply the best. If you are ready to take control of your life, and overcome your alcohol addiction, pick up the phone and call us toll free (888) 920-8849. We look forward to helping you take proactive steps towards getting your life back. Our doors are open and we honor the opportunity to work with you.
Our beautiful and tranquil environment is the perfect setting for focusing your full attention on healing. Here you can find wholeness. Here you can regain your authentic self. Here you can find the freedom to imagine how life might be without drugs. Peace and purpose – that’s what you can find through your dedicated effort under the guidance and support of your advisors and friends at Michael’s House.
Substance abuse has plagued the nation for decades. This has prompted the need for rehab centers, but these facilities must first consider the dynamics of drug and alcohol abuse to effectively treat it. For example, a man who’s been struggling with severe alcoholism for five years will likely need a different form of treatment than a woman who’s been abusing alcohol for only a few months. This is why drug rehab centers like The Recovery Village offer individualized inpatient and outpatient rehab programs — including inpatient detox — to allow them to accommodate the varying needs of patients.
The first stage is occasional use or binge drinking. This usually involves experimentation. If you like the taste or the way alcohol makes you feel, you might choose to drink again. However, at this stage, you can still exert control over your drinking, even if you do drink more than the recommended weekly amount. You might think that occasional binge drinking is harmless, but the reality is that it can have a negative impact on your health and put you at risk of alcohol poisoning. Furthermore, if you continue to binge drink regularly, it can lead to a bigger problem.
Finding new and healthy ways to deal with stress and relax is an important part of drug addiction recovery and we offer a rich recreational program accessible to each resident’s different physical abilities and interests. Our recreation director, a certified personal trainer, organises various seasonal outdoor activities and fitness programs that will heal the body as well as the mind and spirit. Recreational therapy helps getting you back into your past interests, activities and hobbies that was lost during drug addiction. Best Drug Rehabilitation | Memorial Day 2016
Be upfront about your history of drug use when seeking medical treatment. If you need a medical or dental procedure done, be upfront and find a provider who will work with you in either prescribing alternatives or the absolute minimum medication necessary. You should never feel ashamed or humiliated about previous drug use or be denied medication for pain; if that happens, find another provider.

Two factors have been identified as playing pivotal roles in psychological dependence: the neuropeptide "corticotropin-releasing factor" (CRF) and the gene transcription factor "cAMP response element binding protein" (CREB).[9] The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is one brain structure that has been implicated in the psychological component of drug dependence. In the NAcc, CREB is activated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) immediately after a high and triggers changes in gene expression that affect proteins such as dynorphin; dynorphin peptides reduce dopamine release into the NAcc by temporarily inhibiting the reward pathway. A sustained activation of CREB thus forces a larger dose to be taken to reach the same effect. In addition, it leaves the user feeling generally depressed and dissatisfied, and unable to find pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, often leading to a return to the drug for another dose.[17]


Drugs affect the way a person thinks, feels, behaves and how they look. But substance use disorders are often accompanied by co-occuring mental health disorders like anxiety or depression. Some people may use drugs as a form of self-medication for these issues, while other people may develop a mental health disorder after taking substances. Either way, it’s important to look out for psychological and behavioral changes in friends or loved ones who might be struggling with addiction: The best Free Top rated drug rehab treatment centers
Alcohol addiction can happen to anyone. While not everyone who drinks will become an alcoholic, heavy drinking over a long period of time makes it more likely that a problem will develop. There are many other factors, including genetics and underlying mental disorders, that can contribute to alcoholism. Millions of Americans struggle with an alcohol use disorder of some kind — from binge drinking to addiction.
At Gateway Foundation, we employ a variety of addiction therapy services that aid in treatment. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, and Trauma Therapy are some of the most common that our therapists use to help patients begin on the road to recovery. Each of these treatments and therapies is part of a larger overall program, specifically designed for individual patient recovery at one of our 17 drug treatment centers. To speak to someone about treatment at a Gateway Foundation center, call 877.381.6538 today.
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), patients stabilized on adequate, sustained doses of methadone or buprenorphine can keep their jobs, avoid crime and violence, and reduce their exposure to HIV and Hepatitis C by stopping or reducing injection drug use and drug-related high risk sexual behavior. Naltrexone is a long-acting opioid antagonist with few side effects. It is usually prescribed in outpatient medical conditions. Naltrexone blocks the euphoric effects of alcohol and opiates. Naltrexone cuts relapse risk during the first 3 months by about 36%.[9] However, it is far less effective in helping patients maintain abstinence or retaining them in the drug-treatment system (retention rates average 12% at 90 days for naltrexone, average 57% at 90 days for buprenorphine, average 61% at 90 days for methadone).[9] 3 Stages of Drug Alcohol Rehab-How It Works
Drug addiction is a problem whose effects are felt in every corner of the country; however, this means that there are also treatment facilities right across the UK, and wherever you are you will not be too far away from the treatment you need. Your first port of call should always be your GP who will assess your situation and who can tell you what options exist for you locally.
At Burning Tree, we know that finding the right treatment center plays a critical role in stopping the cycle of addiction.  Our long-term approach to treatment makes relapse prevention a signature trademark of everything we do.  After carefully assessing and evaluating all prospective clients, we approach professional treatment on a case by case basis to ensure the highest quality care possible.  Our onsite staff of addiction specialists and therapists provides round the clock supervision and care in the treatment of alcohol/drug dependent behavior and mental disorders. 
At Gateway Foundation, we employ a variety of addiction therapy services that aid in treatment. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, and Trauma Therapy are some of the most common that our therapists use to help patients begin on the road to recovery. Each of these treatments and therapies is part of a larger overall program, specifically designed for individual patient recovery at one of our 17 drug treatment centers. To speak to someone about treatment at a Gateway Foundation center, call 877.381.6538 today.

Insurance: Many types of insurance cover the cost of addiction treatment and rehab; in particular, the Affordable Care Act requires that insurance policies issued under the state health exchanges and through Medicaid programs under the ACA expansion must provide coverage for addiction treatment. It’s important to note that insurance coverage often still requires that the individual provide a co-insurance payment, and some require a deductible be paid before treatment will be free. Specific plans may have different coverage levels, so it’s a good idea to check the specific policy or talk to the insurance provider.
As for programme length, residential rehab usually lasts between four and twelve weeks. Many experts believe that shorter programmes do not give patients enough time to recover while longer programmes run the risk of institutionalising patients and making them fearful of returning home. The one exception for longer stays is dual diagnosis. People recovering from a dual diagnosis circumstance may require longer stays.
Inpatient drug rehab can help anyone who has successfully completed medical detox, but still needs round-the-clock care for substance abuse and any potential co-occurring disorders. Perhaps your addiction went on for years before you sought treatment. Or perhaps you were dependent on a particular substance for months and you are struggling with cravings. Ultimately, anyone who wants a greater chance at success and a reduced risk of relapse can benefit from inpatient drug rehab. However, it’s important to keep in mind that inpatient rehab centers require a full-time commitment.
Genetics make up about 50% of the risk for alcohol dependence, but they by no means tell the whole story. Genetic history is often hard to distinguish, but if parents are regular heavy drinkers, or they drink to reduce stress and depression, it is likely that their children will grow up believing that these behaviours are normal and possibly harmless. But environmental influence doesn’t come only from the home; peer pressure from friends, colleagues and partners can also encourage new and difficult patterns of drinking which can lead to dependency or co-dependency.
One of the major benefits of limiting our enrolment is having the space for flexibility and individuality a larger institution can never accommodate. While our addiction treatment program is primarily focused on evidence-based psychotherapy, we are open and able to integrate into this whichever alternative therapies appeal to each resident. Our goal is to provide each of our residents with precisely the right combination of Psychological, Medical, Pharmaceutical, Nutritional, Alternative and Spiritual practices that will bring each of them their recovery. We pride ourselves in our ability to work with each resident closely, and offer him or her the care, support and treatment they need with compassion and dignity.
While detox is often looked upon as one of the most difficult aspects of the recovery process, addicts aren’t in the clear once they make it through withdrawal.5The real work of recovery takes place post-detox in the therapeutic portion of treatment. In therapy, both individual and group, recovering addicts uncover the root causes behind their substance abuse, helping them to address these issues so they don’t cause them to return to substance abuse at a later date.3
Focus on one area where you’re experiencing the urge. How do the sensations in that area feel. For example, perhaps you feel hot, cold, tingly, or numb? Are your muscles tense or relaxed? How large an area is involved? Describe the sensations to yourself and any changes that occur. “My mouth feels dry and parched. There is tension in my lips and tongue. I keep swallowing. As I exhale, I can imagine the smell and tingle of a drink.”
Dependence is defined as an adaptive state that develops in response to repeated drug administration, and is unmasked during withdrawal, which occurs when drug taking stops. Dependence from long-term drug use may have both a somatic component, manifested by physical symptoms, and an emotional–motivation component, manifested by dysphoria. While physical dependence and withdrawal occur with some drugs of abuse (opiates, ethanol), these phenomena are not useful in the diagnosis of addiction because they do not occur with other drugs of abuse (cocaine, amphetamine) and can occur with many drugs that are not abused (propranolol, clonidine). Practice Demonstration - Substance Abuse Counseling

GENERAL DISCLAIMER: Rehabs.com is designed for educational purposes only and is not engaged in rendering medical advice. The information provided through Rehabs.com should not be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease. It is not a substitute for professional care. If you have or suspect you may have a health problem, you should consult your health care provider. The authors, editors, producers, and contributors shall have no liability, obligation, or responsibility to any person or entity for any loss, damage, or adverse consequences alleged to have happened directly or indirectly as a consequence of material on this website. If you believe you have a medical emergency, you should immediately call 911. Everything You Wanted to Know about Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder: A Primer for Non-Clinicians
Support groups provide people with understanding peers and ongoing support, in church basements, community centers, and public facilities scattered all across the country. Here, people can come together to discuss addiction’s difficulties, and they can meet with other addicted people to gain support and insight. Alumni groups are similar, in that they link peers together to discuss addiction, but these groups contain people who all worked within the same facility for help.
Acamprosate, disulfiram and topiramate (a novel anticonvulsant sulphonated sugar) are also used to treat alcohol addiction. Acamprosate has shown effectiveness for patients with severe dependence, helping them to maintain abstinence for several weeks, even months.[13] Disulfiram (also called Antabuse) produces a very unpleasant reaction when drinking alcohol that includes flushing, nausea and palpitations. It is more effective for patients with high motivation and some addicts use it only for high-risk situations.[14] Patients who wish to continue drinking or may be likely to relapse, should not take disulfiram as it can result in the disulfiram-alcohol reaction mentioned previously, which is very serious and can even be fatal[13]

The way it works is when people normally drink alcohol, endorphins are released into the brain, and this reinforces the behavior of drinking alcohol. Revia and Vivitrol block the feel-good endorphins. Much like when Pavlov's dogs were presented with food when a bell was rung, these dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the bell alone. However, when these dogs continued to be presented with the ringing bell and no food, the salivating stopped. Steps 1, 2, & 3 Guided Meditation by Amie Gabriel
Friends and family: The loved ones of those who are addicted to drugs or alcohol often want to help but aren’t always sure how to bring it up. It’s worth it to ask loved ones if they are willing to assist with the cost of treatment, even if one is embarrassed to do so. Perhaps it could be discussed as a loan that the individual can work to pay back over time. This may be a last resort for some, and even for those who ask, the answer may be no, but it’s a chance for loved ones to be involved and invested in recovery.
Sober living homes are best suited to those seeking transitional housing as they recover from a substance use disorder. Cost-effective, safe, sober and healthy environments provide a place to build strength in a recovery community and establish addiction recovery support groups. Outpatient Treatment is also provided at all Gateway Foundation Recovery Homes, so when it’s time to move forward, the skills and support network remain.
We also have a heated swimming pool so you can enjoy the outdoors and the benefits of aqua fitness that extends the summer months. Our activities will also organise crafting workshops, computer skills training, and much more so you can get back or reignite that creative spark that was put on hold all during drug addiction. The grounds of Searidge Drug Rehab feature a large outside space full of green pastures and a stone’s throw of the ocean that will help you enjoy nature’s beauty that is conducive to rest, relaxation and recovery.
For most people, it takes one drink to produce an Antabuse reaction, therefore it's hard to get by mistake. You can have foods that have been cooked in wine, as long as they've been cooked the alcohol evaporates quickly. You have to be careful of some deserts that have a lot of uncooked alcohol in them. You also have to be careful of some cough syrups and cold preparations that can contain as much as 40% alcohol. Everything you think you know about addiction is wrong | Johann Hari
Our medical team of addiction professionals are experienced and qualified with the use of anti-drug addiction medication. Our physicians are licensed to prescribe naltrexone methadone, suboxone, and a variety of other anti-addiction medications that have been proven effective in helping to control cravings and prevent relapse. Our clinical team recognize the benefits of pharmacotherapy and want you to get the most out of your individual and group sessions. We are proud members of the National Association of Addiction Treatment Providers (NAATP), a US based association and we adhere to the high standards embodied by the NAATP. We are also proud members of the National Association of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counsellors (NAADAC), the largest association of addiction focused professionals in the US and Canada.
Pharmaceutical opiates are now considered to be a more serious threat to public health than illicit drugs like heroin or cocaine. The widespread popularity of prescription analgesics like Vicodin (a combination of hydrocodone and acetaminophen), oxycodone (OxyContin), and Percocet (a combination of oxycodone and acetaminophen) has made these drugs much more accessible to Americans, many of whom obtain the drugs without a prescription. The journal Pain Physician reports that out of the 5 million Americans who admitted to abusing pain relievers in 2010, only 17 percent obtained the drugs through a legitimate prescription. Boost Your Strength To Overcome Addiction - Sleep Hypnosis Session - By Thomas Hall
The gap between men and women affected by alcohol abuse and addiction has closed too. In 2016, an analysis of sixty-eight studies from around the world with a combined sample size of over four million people was carried out. The results showed that in the early 1900s, men were 2.2 times more likely to drink alcohol than women. They were also three times more likely so experience problem alcohol use and 3.6 times more likely to experience harm from their alcohol use. Megan's Battle With Alcohol Addiction | True Stories of Addiction | Detox to Rehab
Sober living homes are best suited to those seeking transitional housing as they recover from a substance use disorder. Cost-effective, safe, sober and healthy environments provide a place to build strength in a recovery community and establish addiction recovery support groups. Outpatient Treatment is also provided at all Gateway Foundation Recovery Homes, so when it’s time to move forward, the skills and support network remain.

The patient's response determines the physician's next step. If the patient denies the problem, recommending joining AA will not work. Involving the family and/or suggesting a trial of abstinence is useful, and, importantly, the physician should follow up with the patient in a few weeks. The patient might be angry initially and storm out of the office, but then the patient might recall the physician's warning months or years later and stop drinking. For patients who recognize a problem and will consider referral, the cheapest (free) and most accessible option is AA.


NIAAA says a relapse typically follows a predictable path. The person in recovery is placed in a high-risk situation, and the person isn’t able to handle that situation effectively. That lack of effectiveness can prompt the person to feel somehow vulnerable or weak, and it can lead to a craving for alcohol. After a weak moment, people just begin to attribute life’s good things to alcohol. They then have a lapse and drink just a bit. In time, they start to drink more and more.
With the Sinclair Method, people only take Revia or Vivitrol before drinking and never otherwise. Revia and Vivitrol are not like other anti-alcohol drugs that cause intense sickness and hangover sensations when taken with alcohol. The change in behavior only appears over time. With the Sinclair Method, Revia or Vivitrol is taken one hour before drinking alcohol. At the end of four to six months of treatment with the Sinclair Method, 80 percent of people who had been overusing alcohol are either drinking moderately or abstaining entirely. Transformations Drug & Alcohol Treatment Centers
Hallucinogenic drugs. Hallucinogens are psychoactive drugs that affect the way you experience the world around you. A few of the most popular hallucinogenic drugs include Ecstasy, LSD PCP, and mushrooms. The effects of hallucinogenic drugs can range from pleasant sensory distortions and feelings of empathy to terrifying hallucinations and violent impulses. These psychedelic substances are popular among young people, many of whom are introduced to hallucinogenic drugs at clubs, raves, concerts, or parties. Although hallucinogenic drugs are commonly believed to be non-addictive, clinical research has shown that drugs like Ecstasy can cause signs of physical and psychological dependence, including withdrawal symptoms, obsessive thoughts, and cravings.
Quality of life improvement. Drug rehab is about helping the patient learn how to avoid relapse on an ongoing basis, but it should also be about helping patients to improve their daily experience. This happens when they are given the assistance they need to handle the other issues in their life that may be diminishing their ability to remain clean and sober. Health problems, legal issues, family problems – all these and more should be addressed on an as-needed basis at an effective addiction treatment program.
Individuals who are alcohol dependant have higher rates of psychiatric disorders than the rest of the population, including depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and psychosis. For these people, alcohol might be a DIY solution to their disorder, and at first might be effective at keeping the symptoms under control. Nonetheless, in time, these problems will only intensify as a result of alcohol abuse.
You have a lot of choices in rehab clinics. The biggest benefit of residential treatment at a UKAT facility is one of not having to worry about outside distractions or temptations. Our residential programmes are designed to help you concentrate wholly on your recovery and nothing else. This will give you the best chances of achieving sobriety and long-term success. Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms: How To Treat Naturally
Finding new and healthy ways to deal with stress and relax is an important part of drug addiction recovery and we offer a rich recreational program accessible to each resident’s different physical abilities and interests. Our recreation director, a certified personal trainer, organises various seasonal outdoor activities and fitness programs that will heal the body as well as the mind and spirit. Recreational therapy helps getting you back into your past interests, activities and hobbies that was lost during drug addiction.

The important thing to remember is that relapse doesn’t mean drug treatment failure. Don’t give up. Call your sponsor, talk to your therapist, go to a meeting, or schedule an appointment with your doctor. When you’re sober again and out of danger, look at what triggered the relapse, what went wrong, and what you could have done differently. You can choose to get back on the path to recovery and use the experience to strengthen your commitment.
Drug addiction recovery is a long-term process, and those who attempt to overcome their drug problems must be prepared for a challenging struggle. In the end, persistence and determination will make all the difference, and if people recovering from substance use disorders are strong enough to stay the course, a happy, healthy, drug-free future will be within their grasp.
Drug rehabilitation services can be a source of strength for people who have fought addiction for months or years. Drug centers typically employ a variety of methods to overcome substance use disorder, including programs that range from medical detox to inpatient and outpatient programs. By understanding the drug rehab process, you can choose the best fit for you or a loved one. Spiritual and Emotional Roots and Treatment of Addiction - Dr. John Townsend
As it gradually unfolds, drug addiction causes structural changes in the brain that distort thinking and perception, specifically in areas related to behavioral control, judgment, decision-making, learning, and memory. Drug addicts suffer enormously negative life consequences as a result of their compulsive and uncontrolled drug use, but that doesn’t prevent them from returning to drugs again and again.
Drug addiction starts with drug use. Experimental use, recreational use, social use, occasional use, medical use – any use of an addictive substance for any purpose can and often does lead to a dependence upon that drug. While any and all drug use has the potential for harm, the most dangerous type of drug use in terms of the likelihood that it will lead to addiction, is the type that stems from a desire to numb pain or negative feelings or to cope with problems in one’s life. ASMR DRUG & ALCOHOL REHABILITATION INTAKE ROLEPLAY
Many addicts feel the need to lie about their problems, whether it be to themselves or family members. A group therapy session creates a support mechanism in which patients are encouraged to open up about their issues in a safe setting. Since every member of the group understands that the patient is going through, there is no need for the patient to hide anything or lie.

Quality of life improvement. Drug rehab is about helping the patient learn how to avoid relapse on an ongoing basis, but it should also be about helping patients to improve their daily experience. This happens when they are given the assistance they need to handle the other issues in their life that may be diminishing their ability to remain clean and sober. Health problems, legal issues, family problems – all these and more should be addressed on an as-needed basis at an effective addiction treatment program.


Aftercare services are primarily designed to help recovering alcoholics maintain their sobriety once their treatment has finished. According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a good after-care service can make a who difference to whether a person's alcoholism treatment is successful. Some states provide sober houses, which provide somewhere to live for people who are trying to stay sober. While it is not formal treatment, staff members who supervise the houses will remind individuals if they have a therapy appointment or support group meeting. They also, along with other residents, offer support and the chance to live in a completely alcohol-free environment.
Group therapy tends to involve a licensed professional and multiple patients. Although group therapy sessions can occur at inpatient facilities, they are more likely to happen in the other rehabilitation programs. Group therapy sessions can last up to an hour. These sessions tend to be particularly useful because they help confront one of the primary issues of addiction. Drug Rehab Arizona | Best Drug Rehab Arizona Information
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